We’ve made it to 100 episodes! Join co-hosts Joan Neuberger and Christopher Rose as they look back on the origins of 15 Minute History, relive the awkwardness of the first few outings in the studio, recap their favorite episodes, share embarrassing moments with impressive guests in the studio, ponder the phenomenon of being asked to entertain serious questions at weddings, and give short glimpses into those April Fools’ episodes that we never quite got around to recording.
[0:00:00 Speaker 0] This [0:00:00 Speaker 1] is 15 minute history, a podcast for educators, students and history [0:00:04 Speaker 0] buffs featuring [0:00:05 Speaker 1] the minds and talents of the University of Texas at Austin. [0:00:08 Speaker 0] 15 [0:00:09 Speaker 1] minute history is a partnership of not even past and hemispheres in the College of Liberal Arts at UT [0:00:14 Speaker 0] Austin. [0:00:15 Speaker 1] So, Chris, it’s 1/100 episode. It is [0:00:18 Speaker 0] our 100th episode. I’m surprised we’re here. I [0:00:21 Speaker 1] can’t even believe it. You know what’s really amazing? It’s the same week is Grey’s Anatomy’s 3/100 episode. [0:00:27 Speaker 0] Oh my God, it must be serendipity. [0:00:29 Speaker 1] It’s a coincidence of historic importance, right? [0:00:31 Speaker 0] It absolutely is, although I think that shows misnamed I keep referring to It is unprofessional. Hot doctors in heat eso as our listeners. Comptel We’re gonna be super duper professional in this one. We’re [0:00:46 Speaker 1] going to recap [0:00:47 Speaker 0] some of our our favorite 15 minute history moments and maybe some of our most embarrassing moments in the studio. I don’t know. [0:00:54 Speaker 1] I do remember that the first episode’s [0:00:56 Speaker 0] Oh my gosh, there s so awkward. Yes, and I feel bad for anybody who subscribes because there’s a those are the ones that download automatically and and I think to myself how in the world that we wind up with With 100,000 subscribers to this podcast considering way had no idea [0:01:15 Speaker 1] what we were doing. Well, you’ve gotten much better in terms of just being relaxed is an interviewer. And, you know, showing [0:01:22 Speaker 0] up completely unprepared helps a lot with E. Think [0:01:26 Speaker 1] that’s true? Yeah, I think that’s true. Letting the interviewer really set the tone. [0:01:31 Speaker 0] Yes, absolutely. And, you know, in all honesty, I think that some of those are the ones that work the best. Because one of the things that and I know we’ve talked about this a few times. But those first few episodes, we were so trying to make a point that we tried a little too hard and we learned to just sort of relax and let the conversation take its own flow. It it worked a lot better. [0:01:54 Speaker 1] Yeah, I think that’s really [0:01:55 Speaker 0] Andi. We’ve got some great storytellers in there, Jeremy Story, Bill brands, you know? Well, I mean, Bill is the epitome. You asked him. What question? And [0:02:05 Speaker 1] you talk about 20 minutes. You know, I think we have different stories about why we started this. [0:02:11 Speaker 0] Yes, I think so [0:02:12 Speaker 1] too. Remember what? You’re still at least your origin myth is at this moment, [0:02:16 Speaker 0] I dio because I’ve been traveling all over the state of Texas because people were freaking out about the new standardized final exams for the high school. So for those of you who aren’t from Texas, World history was introduced is, of course, in the late 19 nineties required for high school graduation. But it was never tested, and the state of Texas decided to replace the, uh, standardized tests with standardized final exams for all of the high school courses. And it was going to include world history in world geography, and people were freaking out. And I mean, there’s no way to boot camp a world history class. So, you know, I’d [0:02:59 Speaker 1] sort of [0:03:00 Speaker 0] had the idea of doing a podcast with little backgrounders on on various topics. But I had absolutely no idea how the actual one actually did a podcast, and I remember you had put out a call because you were looking to doom or with for a K 12 audience, and I had a lot of experience working with K 12 when I was still with the Center for Middle Eastern Studies and as I recall. We had a like a 90 minute meeting and I don’t remember what the 1st 75 of it entailed because we got onto the podcast and I don’t think any of the rest [0:03:30 Speaker 1] about well, I remember that you were really concerned about world history and that came together with my concerns, which were instructions to teachers to do things like talk about Islamic terrorism and nothing else about Islam. And then especially the thing that really got me was that they were being encouraged to teach the good sides of slavery, and at that point, I thought I wanted to do. But I wanted to reach out and do something to give the history of slavery, to make sure that teachers had resource is so that they didn’t have to do that and and we came together. We were just talking about things, different things to do, and I don’t know who came up with the idea of doing a podcast, but I wanted to do [0:04:13 Speaker 0] a podcast. You had already done a few, but it was more like recorded lectures and not it wasn’t a Siri’s and as I recall and so we put our heads together. And this is then and came up with this and thought 15 minutes was a nice time frame. And then in October of 2012, we put this out there on the Internet to a vast, resounding silence and some way got no feedback at all. I wasn’t even sure anybody was listening to it. And then in like March, I looked on iTunes. You and I saw the logo, and I was like, What are they telling us we had pulled because we don’t have enough subscribers or something? And we were on the top charts and on it went from there. [0:04:55 Speaker 1] Well, it turned out that the university’s Twitter PR person put out a tweet about us, and Apple picked it up and they tweeted it. So then all of a sudden, we went from, like 30 downloads toe 300 then, ah, week later to 3000, and all of us. And then it was history. [0:05:14 Speaker 0] And then it was history. After that. 15 minutes worth of history, I suppose. Yeah. Um and and [0:05:20 Speaker 1] we’ve And we’ve talked about doing April Fool’s. We’ve [0:05:23 Speaker 0] never gotten that together. We’ve had five years of a missed April fool’s opportunities. [0:05:28 Speaker 1] Would you remember any of the ideas that we have? [0:05:30 Speaker 0] Yes. I’m still convinced at some point we’re going to do an episode with it with with an expert on on the fact that most the major political Andi [0:05:41 Speaker 1] religious assassinations in history are linked to the tomato. [0:05:46 Speaker 0] Um, and sort of legitimate. The attack of the killer tomatoes films. I e should probably just stop now while [0:05:53 Speaker 1] I’m ahead. I’m pretty sure we had some ideas for cats from outer space. [0:05:57 Speaker 0] Yes, Cats from outer space. Are cats reviewing a movie? [0:06:01 Speaker 1] Yes, because we have many almost half a dozen cats between [0:06:05 Speaker 0] us. Yes, I won’t. We won’t. We won’t identify who has with, uh but But [0:06:10 Speaker 1] wait. We thought we’d let them take the microphone. [0:06:13 Speaker 0] The problem with them is they don’t sit still long enough. Toe. It’s to record anything. You know, e I think a good number of them under the age of two and they would just climb the walls in here in the studio are fabric. And and [0:06:28 Speaker 1] we’d really need video if we [0:06:29 Speaker 0] need video for that. You know, that just doesn’t do in an audio setting. [0:06:33 Speaker 1] So what’s your favorite episode. [0:06:34 Speaker 0] Goodness, my favorite episode. Do you have a favorite? It’s a hard question to answer, isn’t it? [0:06:41 Speaker 1] You know, I think, I think, actually give it sort of connected with why we started this in the first place. I think I think we’ve done a really good job on the history of Islam and religion generally, and I think we’ve done a really good job on the history of slavery in African American history. So I think my if I don’t know if it’s my favorite. But I think one of the best episodes we did was the interview with Heather Williams ended up being 50 minute history. [0:07:07 Speaker 0] It was It’s a phenomenal episode there. I mean, I remember you sending it to me, saying, I don’t know how to cut it down And I I listened to it and said, I don’t I don’t think we should. It was it was just such a thing. It’s It’s such an incredible episode. Um, [0:07:20 Speaker 1] yeah, she It’s about her book on slave families and how awful it was the emotional toll of dividing families that slave owners seemed to do at a whim. It was incredibly informative, incredibly moving, she could convey. What? What? The emotional toll of that. Really? Waas [0:07:39 Speaker 0] There have been a couple of episodes. I felt really sorry for, um, for the studio guys. Uh, yeah. Well, you know, I sometimes I’ve had a couple of good friends in the studio. Like when? When beat us at and I sat down to do the episode on slavery in Iran. I think we giggled the whole way through it. And, uh, I I don’t know how they managed to edit that one together into into a usable piece of anything [0:08:09 Speaker 1] that’s actually one of my favorite episodes, too, because I learned so much [0:08:12 Speaker 0] from Yeah, that was that was a [0:08:13 Speaker 1] good, completely unfamiliar material for me. And I bet for most far, you know, American audience. [0:08:19 Speaker 0] Have you had any interesting experiences in the studio [0:08:23 Speaker 1] when I did, when I did the one with Judy Coffin on Simone above are really good friends, and I thought it would just kind of go really smoothly, But I think I ended up saying things that embarrassed me, you [0:08:36 Speaker 0] know? Yeah, I’ve done that. Um ah, lot. Actually, there was an episode I did with a guest to campus and I won’t. I will. Protect you. [0:08:46 Speaker 1] Go nameless. [0:08:47 Speaker 0] I will protect this person’s privacy. Um, and very, very big name in the field. And, you know, I managed to get on on the schedule and, you know, we were coming directly from a lunch with students, and, you know, I’m sort of hovering in the background, like, Okay, we gotta go. We gotta go. We gotta go get the guest over here. You know, seated miked up in the studio, etcetera. And I said, Okay, Do you have any questions? And, uh, the guest looks at me and says, I don’t know what we’re doing here. I I I had one of those moments of kind of hoping the floor would open up and swallow me, and this [0:09:22 Speaker 1] was a prominent person. This is [0:09:23 Speaker 0] a prominent person. And so, you know, [0:09:25 Speaker 1] you were trying to impress, uh, mostly [0:09:28 Speaker 0] keep happy. There’s a reputation, which is the other reason I didn’t wanna [0:09:32 Speaker 1] I don’t want to [0:09:33 Speaker 0] name the individual, but I think I It was one of those things where I was asking questions and the interview just started to go sideways. You know, I had follow up questions, but the answers weren’t setting up the follow up questions and and and about seven minutes in, I literally came to a is ah, halt! Sweat is dripping because I had no idea what I was supposed to ask next. And then the guests just starts to monologue for about 10 minutes, you know, to Philip to Philip, 15 minutes having a conversation with themselves. And it turned out to be a terrific episode and people, and actually the guest really got into it. But it was. [0:10:15 Speaker 1] It was [0:10:15 Speaker 0] one of those moments. I just remember sitting here thinking, Oh my gosh, what am I doing? I’m just embarrassing myself, you know? [0:10:22 Speaker 1] Well, the first episodes were scripted. We wrote them out. Yes, we did, and and and pretended to kind of interview each other. We [0:10:31 Speaker 0] literally sat here and said, OK, where should I insert a question and wrote them on the script with [0:10:35 Speaker 1] Exactly. So when we first abandon that and started just kind of coming up with questions? Yeah, I know there were many moments like that, and luckily we have this amazing crew. [0:10:48 Speaker 0] Yes, we do way have a terrific crew. [0:10:51 Speaker 1] We do. Jacob Wise and Mike Heidenreich are are amazing technicians. [0:10:56 Speaker 0] They make a sound good. Um, a little too good. I have had problems recruiting, especially advanced doctoral candidates to come into the studio because they tell me I just can’t talk that fluently on a subject for for 15 minutes. And I keep swearing. One of these days, I’m going to get one of the rough cut so they can hear what it actually sounds like before they clean us up. But these air guys who actually think it’s fun to go through and take out the little giggles and the arms and and they make us sound good. [0:11:24 Speaker 1] Everyone who listens to this podcast probably listened to other podcasts that don’t sound anywhere near this good. Well, and you [0:11:30 Speaker 0] could tell it when we go out of the studio. Sometimes I know you recorded someone you were on sabbatical in in London are in Cambridge, Cambridge. And for for those mastering. [0:11:40 Speaker 1] Yeah, we did those in, um on. You don’t want laptops And one of them. We thought both laptops were plugged in, but they weren’t. Oh, I didn’t know that part. That one wasn’t so good. [0:11:53 Speaker 0] Um, but yeah, I actually bought a micro for the microphone has probably logged about 50,000 frequent flyer miles itself. And I have never actually managed to conduct an interview with it. I’ve taken it to Oman. I’ve taken it to Pakistan and and somehow that moment to interview people has never actually presented itself. [0:12:13 Speaker 1] Well, I wanna ask those guys if they have any stories, I don’t, Um, so this is gonna not sound so great on the recording if I’m just talking through here. But I do have a question. So you all are pretty smart about history, right? E don’t know. But I’m genuinely curious. You know your fields very well. How do you pick guests that you know know about their fields, right? Like, how can you know someone that you’re talking to is really, you know, like, well versed in their subject? Does that make sense? Is a question like you ever sitting there thinking to yourself, because I’m often back here thinking to myself like this seems too crazy to be true. Like, how do you know something is true? Or that your guest is, um, like you ever sitting there thinking I need to go back? Check this afterwards or something like that, you know? Well, there’s the famous episode where you were so surprised you were fact checking things in the studio, right? That is true. We have. But that’s usually out of curiosity. You know, I have [0:13:21 Speaker 0] students who do that. My class? [0:13:22 Speaker 1] Yeah. That’s why we don’t let them use laptops. Right? [0:13:25 Speaker 0] Supposedly they don’t listen to me. Anyway, that’s another story, [0:13:29 Speaker 1] right way? No. Well, I mean, sometimes we pick people who’ve either either teach courses on the subject or have written books on the subject. Do you, like, read their books or their their articles or things before you bring them in? Or how much preparation do you even do before you bring someone way? Don’t have the same team that to someone like Terry Gross has. [0:13:49 Speaker 0] So we definitely just ourselves. We dio you know, I read Jeremy Stories book before I interviewed him about the impossible presidency. And when I say I read it, I mean, I did Anak aed Emmick read. I went through it about 90 minutes, but, um ah, [0:14:06 Speaker 1] lot of [0:14:06 Speaker 0] the guests that I’ve I’ve invited to campus or people who are pretty well known in their in their field or when I say, invited to campus, they’ve already been invited to campuses and we invited to election. We invite him in the studio. You know, we’ve We’ve gotten Heather Williams and, um, Stephen Stephen Haughn, who were the Littlefield lectures, which is the big one we do every year in the History Department’s, um when I was still with C M E s. You know, I got to see who was coming, and and a [0:14:34 Speaker 1] lot of [0:14:34 Speaker 0] times it would just be if they were talking about something really academic. But it was in, ah way that would be approachable to the public. I would ask out of curiosity. That’s how we wind up with a model Gilad who did the episode on. He does archaeology, but he’s a linguist. He’s looking for old Arabic inscriptions and, you know, and he was a really interesting guy. Um, and, uh, you know, and sometimes it works, and sometimes it doesn’t. I wanted probably the least successful episodes I’ve done again. I won’t embarrass the guests because it’s actually my fault. Um, is somebody who works on a topic. I happen to know something about from my days when I thought I was going to be a medievalist and wound up switching to being a modernist. But we’re having a great conversation in the studio, and it was like two people talking to each other, and I totally forgot to ask her to identify people. Places explained terms and and everyone has listened to it has told me they have no idea what we’re [0:15:30 Speaker 1] talking about. E. I thought you were going to say it was the most popular. [0:15:34 Speaker 0] No, it’s one of those people are like I [0:15:36 Speaker 1] could tell you guys were really interested, but I have no idea what [0:15:40 Speaker 0] you’re saying. Um, you know and and And And it was it was one of those kind of missed opportunities that, you know, I should have seen coming. But I’m only human. [0:15:49 Speaker 1] You never know. So maybe something that some people really learn from and inspires them e mean. One thing that’s really changed since the beginning is that we started off trying to really coordinate with the school [0:16:03 Speaker 0] with the standard [0:16:03 Speaker 1] with the standards with the school standards and do sort of really general introductory lectures or discussions, and now we do a lot of much more specialized things, and they seem to be Justus Popular [0:16:15 Speaker 0] star. I realized after a while that you know, I can always go back and tell you what standards were taught We’re addressing. But trying Thio fit the episode content in It was making people uncomfortable because they didn’t feel like they, you know, and And [0:16:30 Speaker 1] it was making a sort of shape. The discussion in a certain [0:16:33 Speaker 0] Yeah, it was It was. Well, it also made for just more awkward episodes. I think. You know, I think some of the single numbered episodes way back from the in the beginning are sort of like that. I won’t identify. We tried really hard. Um, but, you know, [0:16:47 Speaker 1] we we course corrected. Um, still get listen, they [0:16:51 Speaker 0] do still get listened to. In fact, one of them. The episode on the effects of the Atlantic Slave Trade on the Americas is our most popular episode. The page on our website for that episode gets six times more traffic than the, uh, on the website home [0:17:08 Speaker 1] page. And who was that? That was Natalie [0:17:11 Speaker 0] Arsenault. She was my My good friend and counterpart of the Theresa is on a long institute for Latin American studies for many, many years. She’s since gone on to the University of Chicago. Um, but she that was one of her areas that she was interested in. She worked on in Afro Brazil, in northeastern Brazil, and, uh um, and have done a lot of work on the Haitian Revolution on and things like that. So we we kind of couple that into doing episode, and it’s been very popular slavery outside the Americas as a comparative. And it was we took the episode titled Directly Out of the AP World History Standards. And so you could tell that there’s School District because I can look at where the links are, their school district all over the [0:17:54 Speaker 1] country. They are using it. That’s really great. That’s great. What else? What else? E do have a couple of ways ask us what was going to say. So so rarely are you the ones being asked the questions, usually asking the questions. So another thing that I just have curiosity. I like to listen to podcasts. I don’t know if you all do, but, um, are there any sort of like, other history podcast that you listen to that you all enjoy or not enjoy what is. It is really striking that what we do is exactly the opposite of what we’re doing today. A lot of podcast start off, even if they get to something serious with, Ah, good, 10 minutes of joking and laughing and stuff that has nothing to with anything, which my kids who are in their twenties really like And are, you know, always recommending podcast to me, um, that I can’t listen thio [0:18:46 Speaker 0] eso There’s a new one that I just discuss. Not new, but I just discovered it’s called on top of the World and it’s actually Mawr. It’s for people who do world history, but it’s it’s It’s more about how to teach world history and how to grapple with things. And it’s it’s. There’s a college to college professors now, one of whom is a former AP world history teacher. And you know what’s interesting is here I am getting ready to go on the academic job market and listening to, you know, how do you put together a syllabus? How do you select a textbook? It was actually really good for May um, you know, and I found it really interesting eso I give them a little push on our twitter feed. I don’t I don’t know if they got anything out of it, but, you know [0:19:28 Speaker 1] Well, my favorite podcast actually is Shawn’s Russia blawg. Sean Guillory, uh, Russian historian. And for a long time he had a great blogged about contemporary, post Soviet sort of Russian affairs. And I don’t know how long ago, but he started a podcast. He does two things either does Siri’s where he talks about today, or he talks to people about books in Russian history and they’re really great. Um, and he does it. This is what I was thinking about, how grateful I am to have the crew because he does it all by himself. He edits out all the arms by himself and puts and does pretty long interviews 45 minute interviews, and I actually I mean, I really like that one. But one of the things I like about our podcast that I think other people appreciate is that it is around 2015, 20 minutes, and that’s a good, you know, ride to the grocery store and back or a couple miles on the jogging trail and that really works for me, The longer ones, I you know, I just can’t I can’t listen to. So, um, what else? What other questions do you have on this one? I might be opening a can of worms. Go ahead. 30 minutes. So, again, you all are usually the interviewers, and you don’t usually get to talk about your own fields very much. And now I know I might be generalizing some. But, Chris, you do Middle Eastern history, right, Joan? Russian history kind of popular right now in the news and a lot going on in those two fields. Is there anything either? From you know, when you first started doing this, like the past five years or so that have really been developments in either your studies or research or anything in your field that you’ve been following that you haven’t had a really, like, a chance to talk about at all. That’s a really good question. You know, we should do episodes with each other. We should talk about your wonderful dissertation. We could talk about my my work. Yes, well, you have a new book [0:21:27 Speaker 0] out, and I was thinking about [0:21:28 Speaker 1] quite out. It’s not [0:21:29 Speaker 0] quite out. But, you know, you were doing, uh, your presentations about your work with the film archives, and it was really interesting, especially with the Mexico connection. [0:21:39 Speaker 1] I mean, I I have a book on license. Uh, okay. Eisenstein’s Ivan the Terrible license Stein eyes, um, sort of most famous Soviet filmmaker from the first half of the 20th century on e mean, i could talk about that for a long period of time. Is fantastic film. It was commissioned by Stalin to be about the medieval, bloody medieval czar sort of to justify his own reign of terror against Soviet people. Um, that’s a really fascinating film, but yeah, I’m not going to talk about it for 30 minutes. On the other hand, it’s the 100th anniversary of the 1917 Revolution. [0:22:16 Speaker 0] We beat that by five years. [0:22:17 Speaker 1] Yeah, right. That’s right. So I mean, this year has just been a year of Centenary conferences and books and so many different things. And in fact, we had Sheila Fitzpatrick in the studio last week to talk about the Revolution and the and the studies have gone on this week. So that’s something listeners might look forward to. [0:22:38 Speaker 0] I’m looking forward to that. I haven’t heard them yet, either. [0:22:40 Speaker 1] There’s a lot of material on the web about the revolution. And And we also had a big conference here a couple weeks ago on the impact in the legacy of the 1917 Revolution on the rest of the world. So usually people focus on Russia and the Soviet Union and post Soviet Russia. Um, but the revolution had a huge impact on politics and possibilities for communism and the dangers communism all around the world. And that was a really fascinating, fascinating conference. I’m not gonna talk about contemporary Russia because that is a can of worms. And I think I’ll just leave that to the specialists because there’s not really much No, I like the past. Yeah, eh. So what about you? I mean, Chris, we just did an article. You just wrote an article for not even passed on your mapping, you little mapping. That was really interesting. [0:23:26 Speaker 0] Yeah. Yeah. And then that article managed to get me invited to Oxford. So fantastic. Eso I’m looking forward to that, but yeah, I’ve been I’m working on public health in Egypt around the first World War and and how the war changed things. And my dissertation is turning into the into this wonderful mishmash of human suffering. And, you know, I hate to make light of it, But you know, there’s there’s diseases, and and and there there’s social diseases and epidemic diseases. And and and all of this is making people very unhappy during the First World War and at the end of the war in 1919 in Egypt. There there’s a revolution. It’s a very popular and what it, by popular I mean, you have all classes of society, you have the people coming out of the fields and pro testing and the nationalists, you know, have long held this up is you know, this is the moment when you know, Egyptians really took to the idea of the nation, and and there’s been for the last two or three decades, you know, scholars breaking this down and saying Now, wait a minute. And so my my contribution is basically looking at the crisis of public health during the war and how that contributed to social anxiety. So, you know, on the one hand you have diseases. On the other hand, you know, I have sex workers in in urban areas because that was considered moral health, and it was regulated by the Department of Public Health and, [0:24:44 Speaker 1] yes, all around the world. At the end of the 19th and early 20th century, you know, states get involved in process [0:24:49 Speaker 0] in prostitution and and and so you know, there’s there’s a lot of interesting and really desperate people there, And, uh, we had a committee of people here a couple weeks ago when I was talking to them about my research and they asked me where the idea came from, and I explained to them that, you know, about 23 years ago, I was at the British archives in London and literally it fell into my lap because I was going through a file and this thing’s envelope of of what is for lack of a better term. Pornography fell into my lap, and it turned out it was collected by a missionary who was going around Cairo and buying all the pornography up on sending it to the British High Commission. As as examples of the loose morals in the streets and eso, it definitely got my attention that I started being documentation that came with it and went from there. But, um, you know, [0:25:40 Speaker 1] your topic actually came right out of the archive. You had gone sort of looking for something gone with a different topic. [0:25:47 Speaker 0] Yeah, but, you know, I was I was definitely willing to be [0:25:50 Speaker 1] swayed. That’s the most fun thing about what we do. The archives themselves or so always so interesting. [0:25:57 Speaker 0] And, you know, and it’s been a hard time to be working on Egypt right now. Um, you know, you were [0:26:01 Speaker 1] planning to go to you. [0:26:02 Speaker 0] I was planning to go to Egypt, and, you know, the fellowship was was pulled on on for reasons of security on This was after there was, you know, the Italian graduate student from Cambridge who was who was murdered in Cairo and, you know, and and things that are not settled right now. And I heard from friends that, you know, getting access was archival collections was just very hard. So, you know, I had to find a Plan B. Um, but yeah, it’s been great, although, you know, in terms of current developments, you know, I was a wedding over the weekend and people kept asking me what’s going on in Lebanon, and I haven’t had a chance to sit down and look at the news for okay. So to clarify as we’re recording this, the Lebanese prime ministers in Saudi Arabia, he resigned over the weekend. He did a very tense interview, or it looked like he was basically being coerced or pressured into saying things he didn’t want to say. Um, the Saudi Arabia has apparently declared war on Lebanon and people kept saying What’s going to happen? And I was like, I don’t know. I haven’t had a chance to look at a newspaper in a couple of weeks because I’m busy writing a conference paper and, you know, I’m juggling two classes and and trying to write a dissertation. You know how this is, Joan? [0:27:13 Speaker 1] Well, yeah, exactly. And so, trying to keep up with Soviet A with contemporary Russian politics be with the incredible amount of misinformation there is in the press right from every across the political spectrum, right? Uh, it just it gets It gets really hard to wear that many hats. [0:27:30 Speaker 0] Yes, also, let me let me enjoy my champagne in peace. On behalf of historians everywhere, let us enjoy our champagne in peace. [0:27:38 Speaker 1] Well, let’s let’s end there with it with the toast to each other, post 100 episodes and a lot more to come. [0:27:43 Speaker 0] A lot more to come. Yeah, stay tuned for the next year. We’ve got some really exciting stuff coming. We’ve got a couple of new co hosts coming on board, [0:27:51 Speaker 1] right? We have a number of grad students were really interested in doing public history, and we’re really excited about having [0:27:57 Speaker 0] the next wave of 15 minute history. Excellent. Thanks for listening, guys. We really appreciate all your support over the years and don’t go anywhere. We’ll be back. [0:28:07 Speaker 1] We’ll be back. [0:28:08 Speaker 0] For a transcript of this episode, images and links to more information visit our website at 15 minute history dot org. That’s the numerals. 15 minute history dot org You can access our full catalog of episodes free of charge at our website and through the iTunes U App for IOS or the tunes viewer App for Android. You can also access the 10 most recent episodes through the apple podcasts app, Google play podcasts, stitchers and overcast. 15 minute history is produced in partnership between not even passed and the Hemispheres Outreach Consortium. Our executive editor is Joan Neuberger, and our technical editor is Christopher Rose. Our audio engineers air the awesome folks in the liberal arts Instructional technology services. Jacob Weiss, Morgan Honaker, Will Kirchner, Samantha Skinner and Michael Heidenreich Special. 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